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Characterization of fuel and aftertreatment device effects on diesel emissions.

Author : Date : 2013-6-30 9:51:11
Heavy-duty diesel engines operated with a low-sulfur (LS)* fuel and either a particle trap or an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) have been studied during steady-state operation (and during regeneration of the particle trap) to determine the effects of these devices on regulated and unregulated emissions, including the chemical and biological character of the exhaust. This study consisted of two phases, both of which were designed to determine the effects of fuel, particle control system, and engine type on (1) levels of regulated emissions such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), total hydrocarbons (HC), and total particulate matter (TPM); (2) levels of unregulated emissions such as particle-associated soluble organic fraction (SOF), sulfate (SO4), solids (SOL), and the vapor-phase organic fraction collected on XAD-2 resin (XOC); (3) levels of selected mutagenic and carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particle-associated and vapor-phase organic fractions; (4) mutagenic activity associated with the same organic fractions; and (5) exhaust particle size distributions. Phase I involved a 1988 Cummins Engine Co. LTA 10-300 (L10) engine equipped with a ceramic particle trap having built-in regeneration controls. Phase II involved a 1991 prototype Cummings Engine Co. LTA 10-310 (LTA) engine equipped with an OCC. The 1991 LTA engine also contained a higher pressure fuel-injection system than the 1988 L10 engine and used an intake charge air-to-air aftercooling system, instead of the intake air-intercooler system on the 1988 engine.